Researchers from Cornell University managed to control the valley (orbital angular momentum) of electrons in a material by using electrical inputs to manipulate the magnetism of an adjacent material.
The device is built from a 2D tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a material whose energy landscape has valleys, atop a few atomic layers of chromium triiodide ( CrI3), a material whose magnetism can be electrically altered. The researchers are now looking for an alternative electrically-controlled magnetism material that will behave in a similar way at room temperatures.
They then changed the voltage across the CrI3 layers and measured the population of the WSe2 valleys using a technique that monitored the spin direction of light that the WSe2 emitted when illuminated by a laser. They found that the direction changed when the voltage was applied, indicating a switch in the semiconductor’s filled valley. The CrI3 layer is magnetic only at around 60 K, so the team says that their next step is to find a material that would allow valley sorting at room temperature.
Researchers from Fusain University and the Chinese National University of Defense Technology demonstrated that 2D all-dielectric PhC slabs without in-plane inversion symmetry can be used to efficiently separate valley exciton emission of a 2D WS2 monolayer in the far field at room temperature.
Left: PhC slabs with C4 symmetry and without in-plane inversion symmetry. By breaking the in-plane inversion symmetry, the polarization states of PhC can cover entire Poincaré sphere's two poles. Right: Illustration of photoluminescence of WS2 monolayer on the PhC slab without in-plane inversion symmetry.
This is the first report of effective valley separation in TMDCs by using PhCs. This method could be extended to manipulate valley exciton emission of other TMDCs monolayers. The ability of this PhC slabs to transport valley information from the near field to the far field would help to develop photonic devices based on valleytronics.
Researchers from the University of California, Riverside, has observed light emission intervalley transmissions. The researchers say that this light emission can be used to read valley information from Valleytronics devices in the future.
The researhers observed the phenomenon in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) - a promising valleytronic material that possesses two valleys with opposite dynamic characteristics in the band structure, and can interact strongly with light.
Researchers from the University of Groningen managed to produce valley-coherent photoluminescence at room temperatures - by using a silver sawatooth nanoslit array in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide flakes.
So-called "coherent light" can be used to store or transfer information in quantum electronics, and the researchers say that their plasmon-exciton hybrid device model may be promising for future integrated nanophotonics applications.
Researchers from the University of California, Riverside,have developed a new method to read the valley indices of the dark excitons and trions. The researchers used monolayer (2D) tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a semiconductor with two distinct electronic valleys.The material hosts bright and dark excitons or trions with different spin configurations.
The researchers say that dark excitons and trions in monolayer WSe2 have much longer lifetime and better valley stability than the common bright excitons and trions - which makes them excellent candidates for valleytronic applications. But up until now there was no method to read the valley indices of the dark excitons and trions because their light emission from either valley has exactly the same energy and polarization. By identifying a measurable physical quantity that can distinguish the two valley indices of dark excitons and trions, the team was able to devise a method to read the valley indices.
Researchers from Korea's Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) discovered the formation of valley domain, which can expand valleytronics technology.
The researchers say that they have solved the stability problem inherent in valley spin in valleytronics devices by discovering the formation of valley domain in 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). The team identified that a valley domain formed in an extreme nano structure can be used to store information in place of spin.
Researchers from EPFL's Laboratory of Nanoscale Electronics and Structures (LANES) developed a new way to control the valley properties of excitons and change the polarization of the light they generate.
Excitons, or electron and electron hole pairs, are created when an electron absorbs light and moves into a higher energy band. To research the excitons, the researchers used a material made from tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), and a circular polarized laser that was focused on the film.
Researchers from Penn State University developed a topological valley valve, which controls electron flow. Using electron "beam splitters", the researchers achieved high-level of electron control.
Using bilayer graphene, the researcher created electron waveguides created by gates defined with extreme precision using state-of-the-art electron beam lithography.By controlling the topology of the waveguides (the valley-momentum locking of the electrons), the researchers can control electron flow.
The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has allocated $20-25 million for a new six year program called "Enabling Quantum Leap: Convergent Accelerated Discovery Foundries for Quantum Materials Science, Engineering, and Information" (Q-AMASE-i).
Q-AMASE-i encompasses many clases of materials, includings ones that explore the paradigms or spintronics, hybrid 2D materials - and Valleytronics.