Researchers show it is possible to realize a valleytronics device in pristine graphene

Researchers from Germany (Max-Born Institute) and India (IIT Bombay) have shown that it is possible to realize a valleytronics device in pristine graphene.

Reading and writing valley-selective electron excitations in graphene (image)

Graphene (and other graphene-like systems) feature an extra degree of electron freedom, or valley pseudo-spin. This has interesting potential in valleytronics applications, but the implementation of valleytronics ideas has been so far limited to gapped graphene-like semiconducting 2D materials, most commonly transition metal dichalcogenides, and has never been attempted in pristine graphene, because graphene monolayers have zero bandgap, zero Berry curvature, and thus nearly identical valleys,.

Researchers demonstrate how few-cycle linearly polarized pulses can induce a high degree of valley polarization

Scientists from several research institutes in Germany and the UK have demonstrated that few-cycle linearly polarized pulses can induce a high degree of valley polarization.

few-cycle linearly polarized pulses can induce a high degree of valley polarization

The mechanism to induce such polarization does not rely on the optical selection rules, and therefore can be in principle used in inversion symmetric materials, such as TMD bilayers or graphene. This could enable the design of ultrafast valleytronic devices.

Researchers use rotated graphene between a ferromagnetic insulator to generate valley-only states

Researchers from ETH Zurich and Aalto University showed that sandwiching two slightly rotated layers of graphene between a ferromagnetic insulator provides a unique setting for new electronic states.

A valley-spiral in magnetically encapsulated twisted bilayer graphene (Aalto University)

The combination of ferromagnets, graphene's twist engineering, and relativistic effects force the "valley" property to dominate the electrons behavior in the material. In particular, the researchers showed how these valley-only states can be tuned electrically, providing a materials platform in which valley-only states can be generated.

Researchers develop a graphene-based topological valley valve

Researchers from Penn State University developed a topological valley valve, which controls electron flow. Using electron "beam splitters", the researchers achieved high-level of electron control.

Using bilayer graphene, the researcher created electron waveguides created by gates defined with extreme precision using state-of-the-art electron beam lithography.By controlling the topology of the waveguides (the valley-momentum locking of the electrons), the researchers can control electron flow.

Researchers find a way to achieve current valley separation in graphene

Researchers from Ohio University have found a simple yet effective way to achieve current valley separation in graphene. The idea is based on inversion symmetry, or the creation of properly oriented obstacles that break an important symmetry of the graphene crystal.

Valley current asymmetry in graphene

This is a theoretical work, but the researchers say that the results could enable seperating and controling valley currents in graphene in real experiments which will hopefully lead to the utilization of graphene in future valleytronics devices.

Researchers use bi-layer graphene to create a device that control electron flow based on the valley degree of freedom

Researchers from Penn State University demonstrated a new device, based on bi-layer graphene, that provides an experimental proof of the ability to control electron-flow by the valley degree of freedom. This is still an early-stage development, but could be seen as an important step towards valleytronics.

Bi-layer graphene based valleytronics experiment (Penn State)

The device is built from a bi-layer graphene, and gates above and below the graphene layer. Adding an electric field perpendicular to the plane opens a bandgap in the bi-layer graphene, and a physical gap (70 nanometer in height) is left, in which one-dimensional metallic states (wires) exists. These states act as valleytronics valves.